Description: Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; field work, eight hours. Requisites: courses 200A, 200B. Preparation: familiarity of basic probability theory and statistics, multivariate calculus, basic linear/matrix algebra. Clarification of conditions under which estimates made using non-experimental data can be given causal interpretation. Strategies for accessing and maximizing credibility of causal claims made from non-experimental evidence. Designs and methods, including experiments, matching, regression, panel methods, difference-in-differences, synthetic control methods, instrumental variable estimation, regression discontinuity designs, and sensitivity analyses. Reinforcement of some basic skills from probability and statistics. S/U or letter grading.