Description: (Same as Ancient Near East M60 and History M60.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Survey of period from circa 600 to 300 BCE, rise and fall of Achaemenid Persia, first world empire of antiquity, which was ended by Alexander the Great, whose campaigns were as transformative as they were violent. Alexander connected ancient Mediterranean and Near East as never before, ushering in new era and forever changing cultural landscape of ancient world. Focus on themes of ancient kingship and political ideology; comparative study of empires; administration and institutions; and religious and ethnic diversity in large, heterogeneous states. Students gain broad knowledge of Achaemenid and Macedonian empires, facility with ancient primary sources, and development of analytical skills central to discipline of history. P/NP or letter grading.